Exploit Notes

Firmware Analysis

Last modified: 2023-01-06

IoT Reverse Engineering

Static Analysis

The following tools are often used for static analysis.

# -E: Calculate file entropy
# -N: Do not generate an entropy plot graph
binwalk -EN ./firmware

# firmware-mod-kit
./extract-firmware.sh ./firmware

Dynamic Analysis

gdb ./firmware
rizin ./firmware


FIRMADYNE is a platform for emulation and dynamic analysis of Linux-based firmware.

# Analyze and emulate the system
./fat.py example.squashfs

The analysis will start.
Copy the ip address in the output as below.

Network interfaces: [('brtrunk', '')]

In local machine, port forward using the ip.

ssh -L 8081: remote-user@<remote-ip>

Now we can access to

Tools by HDKS


Automatic web fuzzer.


Auto reconnaissance CLI.

Hash Cracker

Hash identifier.