File & Directory Permission in Linux

Last modified: 2023-10-30


We can change permissions of file/directory using `chmod` command.


Permission Number Character
Read 4 r
Write 2 w
Execute 1 x

We can use these value combination for changing permission.
For example,

Permission Number Character
Read + Write + Execute 4+2+1=7 rwx
Read + Write 4+2=6 rw
Read 4 r

Cheat Sheet


Target Command
User chmod 700 sample.txt
chmod u+rwx sample.txt
Group chmod 070 sample.txt
chmod g+rwx sample.txt
Others chmod 007 sample.txt
chmod o+rwx sample.txt
All chmod 777 sample.txt
chmod a+rwx sample.txt


Target Command
User chmod 600 sample.txt
chmod u+rw sample.txt
Group chmod 060 sample.txt
chmod g+rw sample.txt
Others chmod 006 sample.txt
chmod o+rw sample.txt
All chmod 666 sample.txt
chmod a+rw sample.txt


Target Command
User chmod 500 sample.txt
chmod u+rx sample.txt
Group chmod 050 sample.txt
chmod g+rx sample.txt
Others chmod 005 sample.txt
chmod o+rx sample.txt
All chmod 555 sample.txt
chmod a+rx sample.txt


Target Command
User chmod 300 sample.txt
chmod u+wx sample.txt
Group chmod 030 sample.txt
chmod g+wx sample.txt
Others chmod 003 sample.txt
chmod o+wx sample.txt
All chmod 333 sample.txt
chmod a+wx sample.txt


By adding SUID or GUID, we can execute the file as the file owner/group.
This may cause local privilege escalation.

# SUID for user owner
chmod u+s /opt/

# GUID for group owner
chmod g+s /opt/